Selman A. Waksman, Ph.D.,
Microbiologist, New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station
Winner of the 1952 Nobel prize in Medicine
Dr. Waksman was honored in recognition of his long-continued investigations of the several antagonistic effects of certain soil microorganisms on pathogenic bacteria, culminating in the isolation of streptomycin as a therapeutic antibiotic, followed by its clinical application, thus strengthening the armamentarium of the physician in the struggle against disease.
Edward Calvin Kendall, Ph.D., D.Sc.,
Chemist, Mayo Clinic
Philip Showalter Hench, M.D., Sc.D.,
Physician, Mayo Clinic
Winners of the 1950 Nobel prize in Medicine
Drs. Kendall and Hench received the award for their work on cortisone. Dr. Kendalls work included the isolation of thyroxin, the determination of the constitution of glutathione, and isolation of several physiologically active steroids. Dr. Henchs contributions included the demonstration of the physiologic and pharmacologic actions of certain products of the adrenal cortex and related substances, and their relationships to rheumatoid arthritis and the collagen diseases.
John Franklin Enders, Ph.D.,
Associate Professor of Bacteriology,
Harvard Medical School;
Childrens Hospital, Boston
Winner of the 1954 Nobel prize in Medicine
Dr. Enders contribution was the development of relatively simply methods for the isolation and cultivation of polio virus in tissue culture. These techniques made it possible to isolate virus from the excretions of most patients with poliomyelitis, and to type the virus rapidly.
Vincent duVigneaud, Ph.D.,
Professor and Chairman of the
Department of Biochemistry, Cornell
University Medical College
Winner of the 1955 Nobel prize in Chemistry
Dr. duVigneaud was chosen for his investigation of the posterior portion of the pituitary gland, which has culminated in the identification and synthesis of oxytocin (used for contracting the uterus) and vasopressin (valuable in the treatment of diabetes insipidus).
Keith R. Porter, Ph.D.,
Professor of Biology,
George E. Palade, M.D.
Member and Professor of Cytology,
The Rockefeller University
Winner of the 1974 Nobel prize in Medicine
Drs. Porter and Palade shared the Award in recognition of their original work in developing the use of the electron microscope in cytologic research and the subsequent importance of their work in the field of genetics. The techniques and applications which they developed became extremely valuable to researchers in cytogenetics and cell biology.
Charles B. Huggins, M.D.,
Director, Ben May Laboratory for
Cancer Research, Chicago
Winner of the 1966 Nobel prize in Medicine
The Award was bestowed on Dr. Huggins for his contributions to the knowledge of the role of hormones in the induction and control of cancer. He discovered the use of female hormones in cancer of the prostate. In addition, he has worked on calcium metabolism, blood enzymes, bone physiology, experimental surgery and cancer research.
George Herbert Hitchings, Ph.D.,
Vice-President, in Charge of Research,
Burroughs Wellcome & Company
Winner of the 1988 Nobel prize in Medicine
Dr. Hitchings showed exemplary leadership in the rational application of the antimetabolite concept, in conjunction with exploration of differences in the enzymatic machinery of host and parasite, to the design of clinically important chemotherapeutic agents for immunosuppression and for therapy of leukemia, gout and malaria.
Roger W. Sperry, Ph.D.,
California Institute of Technology,
Division of Biology
Winner of the 1981 Nobel prize in Medicine
Dr. Sperry discovered an unexpected specificity in the recognition of one neuron by another, and he offered new insights into the functions of the surgically disconnected hemispheres, first in animals, then in human patients operated upon for intractable epilepsy. He made fundamental contributions to our understanding of the mind/brain relation and the neurologic bases of human behavior.
Roger Guillemin, M.D., Ph.D.,
Professor, The Salk Institute
Winner of the 1977 Nobel prize in Medicine
Dr. Guillemins pioneering research provided decisive evidence which demonstrated control by the hypothalamus of release of pituitary hormones.
Michael S. Brown, M.D.,
Joseph L. Goldstein, M.D.,
Professors of Medicine, University of
Texas Southwestern Medical Center
Winners of the 1985 Nobel prize in Medicine
Drs. Brown and Goldsteins insights into the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis resulted in reappraisal of its prevention and treatment.
Roger D. Kornberg, Ph.D.
Stanford University, CA, USA
Winner of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Dr. Kornberg was honored for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription. He was the first to create an actual picture of how transcription works at a molecular level in the important group of organisms called eukaryotes (organisms whose cells have a well-defined nucleus). Mammals like ourselves are included in this group, as is ordinary yeast.
J. Michael Bishop, M.D.
Harold E. Varmus, M.D.,
Professors of Microbiology,
University of California School
of Medicine, San Francisco
Winners of the 1989 Nobel prize in Medicine
Drs. Bishop and Varmus were honored in recognition of their pioneering research on the molecular biology of tumor viruses, and in particular for their key discovery that the cancer-causing genes (oncogenes) of a major class of tumor viruses are present as normal components of the chromosomes of all vertebrates, including man.
Young Scientist Award
Thomas R. Cech, Ph.D.,
Professor of Chemistry,
University of Colorado, Boulder
Winner of the 1989 Nobel prize in Chemistry
Dr. Cech was recognized for his highly original discovery that nucleic acids (RNA) are capable of catalyzing their own splicing reactions in the absence of conventional enzymes.
Edwin G. Krebs, M.D.,
Edmond H. Fischer, Ph.D.,
Professor of Biochemistry, University of Washington, School of Medicine
Winners of the 1992 Nobel prize in Medicine
Drs. Krebs and Fischer were honored for their pioneering studies on the role of protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycles in cellular regulation.
Alfred G. Gilman, M.D., Ph.D.,
Department of Pharmacology,
University of Texas, Dallas
Winner of the 1994 Nobel Prize in Medicine
Dr. Gilman was recognized for his seminal contributions to the understanding of signal transductions.
Roger Y. Tsien, Ph.D.
University of California
San Diego, CA, USA
Winner of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Dr. Tsien was recognized for his work in the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP.
Leland H. Hartwell, M.D.
Professor of Genetics
University of Washington
Winner of the 2001 Nobel Prize in Medicine
Dr. Hartwell was selected for his pioneering insights into the life cycle of the cell and its role in the development of cancers. He was the first to identify the molecules that regulate cell division, and developed and proved the concept of cell cycle checkpoints.
Elizabeth H. Blackburn
University of California
San Francisco, CA,
Carol W. Greider
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Drs. Blackburn and Greider were awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase.
Andrew Z. Fire, Ph.D.
Stanford University School of Medicine
Stanford, CA, USA
Joint winner of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Medicine
Dr. Fire was honored for his work in the discovery of "RNA interference gene silencing by double-stranded RNA". This is a fundamental mechanism for controlling the flow of genetic information.